9.4.3 Another Notation For Line Integrals
Definition 9.4.15 Let F
and let C be an oriented curve.
Then another way to write ∫
This last is referred to as the integral of a differential form, Pdx + Qdy + Rdz. The study of differential
forms is important. Formally, dR =
and so the integrand in the above is formally
occurrences of this notation are handled similarly in 2 or higher dimensions.